Canada is conducting exploratory discussions on bilateral or multilateral free trade agreements with the following countries and trading blocs, although formal negotiations have not yet begun: The terms “Australia” or “Canadian Brexit” aim to make the British public understand the type of trade relationship they can expect with the EU if, at the end of the transition period, , no preferential free trade agreement is concluded between the UK and the EU. There are more than 180 formal agreements between Australian and Canadian universities, nearly 300 members of the Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand, and more than 2,000 Australian and Canadian students enrolled in universities across the country. While Northern Ireland remains in the UK`s customs territory, it is subject to EU tariffs on goods from the UK when they are at risk of entering the EU. Northern Ireland will also be subject to EU tariffs on products from Britain when they are partly produced in Northern Ireland. In addition, Northern Ireland will be subject to EU subsidy controls. Ultimately, these rules could apply to subsidies across the UK if UK public assistance could theoretically have an impact on trade between Northern Ireland and the EU, as established by the ECJ. Canada`s trade relationship with Australia is strong and diverse. In 2018, two-way merchandise trade between Canada and Australia remained stable at $4.1 billion. Canadian exports totaled $2.0 billion and consisted largely of value-added products such as machinery, aircraft and parts, electrical and electronic machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, as well as scientific and precision instruments. Imports amounted to $2.1 billion and included inorganic chemicals, meat, beverages, precision instruments and technical machinery. Two-way trade in services in 2018 was estimated at about $2.7 billion, with Canadian exports accounting for about $1.6 billion. Free trade agreements provide a mechanism to facilitate trade in goods. Each agreement contains information and links to legislation, guidelines and opinions on rules of origin and access to preferential rates.
The issue of trade, which was increasingly integrated into the centre of trade relations in the imperial link debate, was equally divided. The failure to reach a trade agreement has not hurt bilateral trade. In fact, the war gave a huge boost to the sale of Canadian forest products, metal manufactures and auto parts in Australia. Access to this market, which became increasingly important as a post-war recession deprived Canada of its U.S. sales, was threatened. In 1921, Australia imposed new tariffs on Canadian newsprint, while announcing its intention to enter into trade agreements with members of the British Empire. In October 1922, Mackenzie King`s Minister of Commerce, James Robb, went to Australia to pursue a bilateral trade agreement. Yet, from a Canadian point of view, he seemed to have every reason to persevere. Despite initial financial setbacks, the Canadian-Australian steamboat line was able to set up a regular shipping service. Bilateral trade has, albeit always, contracted.
Canadian exports to Australia – mainly wood, canned salmon and agricultural products – tripled between 1892 and 1900. In addition, Canada had a full surplus: in 1900, it exported more than $1.6 million worth of goods to Australia in exchange for imports worth only $660,000. Facilitated by regular steamboat and cable connections, the exchanges between the two kingdoms, after the Federation of Australian Colonies, seemed to develop safely in January 1901. Canadian exporters encouraged Canada`s Liberal Prime Minister, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, to